Outer Specifications & Exteriors:
Maruti has blessed Wagon R with stylish exterior search. The sleek & husky physique is an eye turner. The recently designed chrome grille has blue tinted headlights producing it glance appealing, with body colored bumpers, electric ORVMs with indicators & part door handles. It also gets impressive seem by silver ceiling rails. For the back, tail gate, with impressive back lgts & alloy wheels gives a very classy search. This hatchback has ability for 5 men and women with dimensions as length- 3595 mm, width- 1495 mm (1475 mm in some models), height- 1700 mm (1670mmin some models), 2400 mm as wheel base. It has beneficial ground clearance of 162 mm.
To the other hand Hyundai i10 has great clear headlamps, stretching towards rear. Chrome grille adds to its seems to be. Rear portion in the car or truck can’t be compared with that of Wagon R. the usage of black color, at some locations, makes it look excellent. All round, it features a fresh glance. It has new bumper, triangular fog lamps, ORVMs with flip indicators like other luxury automobiles. It also includes little antenna & reverse parking sensors.
Engine, Performance, Capacity, Mechanical Components:
Maruti Wagon R has put KB10, 998cc, 3-cylinder, aluminum light bodyweight engine in wagon R with 5 Speed Manual Transmission which complies with BS IV emission norms. It really is very fuel environment friendly & delivers mileage of 14.2 km/l in city & 18.9 km/l about the highways (distinct variants give diverse mileage). The fuel tank has capacity of 35-litres for petrol & 60-litres for CNG water. It has a motor displacement of 998cc, 3 cylinder, 4 valve and DOHC technologies. An energy of 68PS@6200rpm & a torque of 90Nm@3200 rpm is produced although CNG fitted motor develops electrical power of 59.3Ps@6200rpm & torque of 77Nm@3500rpm.
Hyundai i10 has 2 distinct engines & so the mileage can also be various. Its 2 variants (D-lite & Era) have 1.1L, 1086cc, IRDE petrol engine, supplying higher performance & efficiency. Its mileage ranges from 14km/l to 19.8kmpl. One other variant have 1.2L, 1197 Kappa petrol engine with 5 pace manual transmission. The mileage in such a circumstance ranges from 15.4km/l to 19.2kmpl. A number of its variants even have automated transmission gearbox, while using exact same motor, delivering mileage 15.4km/l to 20.3kmpl. 1.1 IRDE2, 4 cylinder, SOHC engine delivers electrical power of 69Ps@5500rpm with torque of 10.1kgm@4500rpm, while 1.2 Kappa2, 4 cylinder, DOHC engine is capable of making ability of 80Ps@6000rpm & torque of 11.4kgm@4000rpm.
Interiors & Features:
With excellent interiors Maruti Wagon R can effortlessly entice car or truck lovers. Its very best thing is its room. Its instrument panel, inside door handles, upholstery, roof lining with floor flooring adds to its impressive inside look. The seats & gear knobs offer an incredibly snug driving knowledge. Other characteristics are sun visor with vanity mirror, adjustable front & rear seat mind rests, cabin lamps, air conditioner & anti glare. It also has adjustable energy steering, promising comfy driving while using ability window on all seats. The seats might be folded to some extent, to create some house, when essential. As a lot as house is involved, it offers seat tray underneath entrance passenger seat, storage space at drivers side& front passenger seat again pocket.
In Hyundai i10, the best is the place of gear lever, on the centre console. The 3 spoke steering wheel has audio management on it & other people capabilities like blue-tooth push button, USB port, digital fuel mete, MP3/CD player, AC. The seats are positioned in this kind of a manner that ample room is there for storage & cup holders. Equipped with warning lgts for various features like seatbelt, oil stages, battery, strength steering and many others are there to indicate when there exists one thing fishy, digital ORVMs. It also has adjustable driver seat.
Maruti Wagon R is regarded for its security due to its braking system (entrance-ventilated disc, rear-drum), ABS, dual airbags, driver seatbelt warning lamp, rear wipers, washer & de-fogger, youngster security lcks.
Hyundai i10 has suspension customized for Indian roads. The blend of disc/drum brakes brings the car or truck from 100km/h to 0 in only 4.1 seconds. Even moving at excessive speeds the car will not experience the vibration, loss of electrical power. It has front disc brakes & rear dumb brakes with ABS. The other safety attributes are Dual front airbags, seat Belts with warning lamp, door open warning lamp, fog lamps, tubeless Tyres, engine Immobilizer, baby locks with central locking.
Spreading of industrialization world over and population explosion, our natural resources have been ever shrinking. In India, the last two decades the rise of spending power of the middle class has increased their energy consumption drastically. Each and every family have around 2 to 4 bedroom flats, with one or more television, fridge, Air conditioners, and lighting to illuminate their homes . Over dependence on non-renewable sources of energy like coal powered energy stations screams for the expansion of energy saving systems by bringing in LED lighting company in India. The LED lights are designed in such a manner, that they can last longer and consume a lot less energy than their previous counterparts. A LED lighting company proudly states that their products with help the new urban India reduce its ever growing energy consumption drastically, with new and improved array of products. They boast, with their enhanced technology they have created a new range of products which with not only last longer and stay brighter but will also be cost effective as well.
Urban India is moving a step ahead with the rest of the developed world in the area of good quality LED Lighting, with the presence of LED lighting company in India. LED lighting Delhi, have a wide variety of products which aims to brighten up the streets of the urban jungle. They are revved up to meet the ever growing demands of LED lighting services by these products which not only have longer life, but also encompass smaller size, better design, light output with no ultra violet and infra red radiation that is harmful to our eyes. They are a lot safer to use because of lower voltage and lower heat operation.
A new LED lighting company in India said that LED lighting is the future, and the next wave of revolutionary lighting systems. LED products are more brilliant and emit higher color saturation when compared to conventional light sources. You get different color effect from the same light source, which is good for home use for decorative purposes in festivals like Deepavali. These products from LED lighting company are also said to have unbreakable plastic bulbs, weather proof, and shock proof to a certain degree. Also has silent operation and fast switching capabilities. Development of solar powered LED lighting India has even a brighter future.
LED lighting services have proven to be a the best lighting solution for places which need to be lit for a long duration of time such as streets, parking areas, reception areas, living rooms, hallways, restaurants, offices, kitchens ,lobbies etc. They do have more of a initial cost, but due to their efficiency, longevity, more durable compared to conventional breakable fluorescent bulbs, and also reduces trips to the doctor because of low UV imitations they turn out to be more cost effective solution. LED lighting services have also been developed to make benefit of the best renewable source of energy Sun. LED lighting services are the most efficient lighting service available in market today, reducing the damage done to your pocket and suits your varied needs.
Reference website: www.ikioledlighting.com
Luxaire is a division of the Unitary Products Groups – A Johnson Controls Company. The company is a major supplier of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration units in the United States and a leading supplier on the international market. The quest of the company to find the top technology is evident in their line of energy efficient residential and light commercial heating and cooling systems. In addition, Luxaire offers you superior service and support. Efficient and reliable heating and cooling systems that are backed by award winning service is why many homeowners, dealers and distributors choose Luxaire systems.
A vital piece of the Luxaire cooling system is the air conditioning coil. The Luxaire system comes with two parts – an indoor and an outdoor unit. The indoor unit is the air handler or furnace, which is responsible for circulating air throughout the building. Inside the air handler or furnace there is a fan and an evaporator coil. Because of these two components being properly matched, you get a money saving efficient machine that gives you improved comfort and years of maintenance free service.
The air condition coil in Luxaire products are specifically engineered for outstanding durability and exceptional heat transfer. With Luxaire high quality coils you will get the comfort you need in either your home or business atmosphere. You get an indoor and outdoor unit that is perfectly matched for high efficiency. A positive-sloped drain pan reduces the issue of standing water that can lead to germs. A special patented MicroBlue coating on the air conditioning coil keeps germs and moisture from collecting on the coil and being released into the air. In a few air conditioning coils, you can get environmentally friendly and proven refrigerants. For optimum performance, there is an optional thermostatic expansion valve.
The 13 SEER: Climasure MicroChannel air conditioner will make a big difference in your energy bill. Sometimes it can reduce your energy bill by up to 50% compared to other central air conditioning units that are over 10 years old. When combined with a variable speed air handler or gas furnace, you will get efficiencies over 14 SEER, which can further reduce the operating cost of your air conditioning unit.
Lastly, Luxaire air conditioners are specifically engineered for reliability and outstanding performance. Luxaire air conditioners provide a high efficiency condensing units, which provides you with the comfort you need. For the highest efficiency, your furnace and coil are perfectly matched. You get an assured longer life with an advanced MicroChannel all aluminum construction. Luxaire air conditioning units are specifically designed to reach maximum performance in the minimum amount of space. All of the moving parts in a Luxaire air conditioning unit are specially selected and mounted in order to meet the lowest sound ratings. The fan motor on a Luxaire air conditioning unit is permanently lubricated so no maintenance is required.
With all these benefits, it is easy to see why many people are making Luxaire air conditioners the choice for all air conditioning needs. It is also clear why Luxaire has become an industry leader in the air conditioning industry.
With the constant rise in energy prices it is becoming more important for businesses to focus on improving their energy efficiency. There are many ways to improve your business energy efficiency some of which I’ll explain in this article.
Before digging any deeper it is important to have a clear understanding of what energy efficiency is. Energy efficiency in plain English is the efficient use of energy by business or households. Improving business energy efficiency is the goal to reduce the energy consumption within all areas of a business, be it in the production line or in the offices.
Simple examples of energy efficiency improvements are when you reduce by one degree the water temperature of your boiler or insulate the premises so the building uses less heating and cooling. But improving business energy efficiency goes far beyond that.
First of all any commercial building with over 50m2 must have an Energy Performance Certificate to determine its energy efficiency grade. The EPC classify buildings in two distinct categories: Simple Building and Complex Building, this will affect the type of EPC assessor you will need. (For detailed information see resources box link Energy Performance Certificate).
Install smart meters to gain more control over your energy consumption and expenditures. This next generation of electricity meters were developed to put an end to estimated utility bills and meter readings, and provide customers and energy suppliers with accurate information on the amount of electricity and gas being used.
According to a survey conducted by the Carbon Trust, businesses that installed smart energy meters reported savings of 12% a year when combined with consumption data and energy-saving advice. Hence the importance of hiring an energy consultancy company.
Back in the mid 90s the energy industry was revolutionised by the introduction of compact fluorescent lamps (energy saving lights). CFL lamps consume less energy and have a lifespan 15 times longer than ordinary incandescent light bulbs. Nowadays a new lighting revolution is taking place with the introduction of LED Lights.
LED lighting can save up to 90% on lighting bills, since lighting accounts for 40% of your business electricity bill; led lights can not only improve your business energy efficiency considerably but also reduce its carbon footprint.
Fact: Eco Solutions LED lights last on average 50,000 hours thats 42,000 hours more than the traditional tubes.
Replace old machinery with newer and more energy efficient. Modern machinery uses significantly less energy. With that mindset the UK Government is working on a multi-billion pound scheme help more than 4m businesses replace energy hungry equipment with more energy efficient ones improving their overall business energy efficiency.
As you can see improving your overall business energy can be strenuous job and it is best if left to the professionals. So my final advice here is hire an energy consultancy firm and let their energy consultants find the best ways for your business to save money on energy bills.
Humanity has always faced challenges to its survival and the well being of its societies. Today is no different. Regardless of where you live, global warming will change how you live, work and eat. Thankfully, people have always been able to rise to the challenges before them, and this crisis will be no different. Some methods are easy and some are hard, but these different ways of saving energy could change the world, indeed. These broadly drawn methods are a framework on which our energy future can be changed.
Forging World Partnerships.In the past couple decades, the economies of China and India have made serious strides. Both countries are industrializing exponentially, which boosts the level of pollution they generate. According to Wired Magazine, China is planning to build 30 nuclear power plants by the year 2020. This power starved nation also constructed the Three Gorges Dam, which changed the path of major rivers and flooded large parts of the country in order to generate hydroelectric power. By working together and sharing technology, everyone could benefit from evolving methods of energy generation.
Streamlining Public Transportation. Getting from place to place takes a lot of energy. Public transportation reduces the personal amount of energy one uses while traveling, but it has its problems. Buses and trains are often extremely inconvenient, and can cost the same as simply driving to one’s destination. Airline travel uses massive amounts of petroleum. The Japanese have made strides to increase the efficiency and comfort of travel; their extensive use of electromagnetic bullet trains get people where they need to be quickly and at a relatively low cost to the environment.
Improving Private Transportation. Let’s face it, people are not going to give up the convenience of automobiles unless they have no other choice. That’s why private and public agencies are working to improve the energy efficiency of automobiles. While a completely solar powered car is pretty far off, Ford Motor Company is developing technology that will incorporate roof mounted solar cells to contribute to charging the hybrid battery. Plug in electric cars are also a future necessity, and these will be powered by the same clean electricity that powers your home.
Getting Back to Basics.The conveniences of the modern world are amazing. Heating and air conditioning allow us to live where we please in comfort and all of our electronic devices keep us in constant contact with our loved ones. While we’re certainly not going to give up our climate control or cell phones, the cumulative effect of millions of people could reduce our energy usage enough to mitigate the effects of global climate change. Instead of shutting out nature with sealed windows, we can open windows in the evening to let cool air in, and close blinds over them to keep out the hot sunlight. As they draw energy even when not in use, we can unplug phone chargers and flat screen televisions to reduce our energy consumption even further. Even something as simple as planting bushes can moderate the temperature in our homes. Vigilance by a few can mean success for the many.
Reduce Energy Transportation Cost. Americans use a lot of fossil fuels to generate their electricity and power their cars. Currently, we get a lot of these materials from far flung regions. Eliminating some of the transportation cost would make a dent in our energy costs and would also help influence American foreign policy. For example, accessing the oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge would bring ready energy from within our own borders. Refining the techniques used to reclaim shale oil in Canada would also accomplish the same effect.
Help Reduce the Pollution Caused by Industry. The skylines of yesteryear were blanketed with heavy smoke from dirty manufacturing plants. Thanks to a progression of advances in green technology, these plants give off far fewer greenhouse and other gases. Most smokestacks are currently equipped with scrubbers that cut down on the volume of sulfur and other gases bellowed into the atmosphere. With further research dollars, these methods will only get better, reining in air pollution, even as our population increases.
Education is the Key. Education is the solution to so many problems. The more people learn, the easier it is to effect meaningful change. In addition to making more Americans aware of what they can do to change the world, it’s also important to reach out to the rest of the world. The Internet and other methods of communication make it possible to put everyone on the same page.
Starting a business in UK requires significant startup capital and help with cost in terms of grants, reduced charges, loans, equipment and discounted premises to establish their presence in the market.
Without considering expertise business strategies and suggestions, a business can undergo in to a big problem. Choosing an ideal business location can be one of the major decisions while selecting a location for business. A non idyllic location can affect productivity and efficiency of a business.
What are the major aspects that should be taken while purchasing a location? Before investing in location, you have to carefully judge what your business needs are. This one step focuses your search and minimizes needless inquiries.
Your staff shouldnt be expected to travel long distances every day to come to work Think about this if you are considering a location which is too far from some main ports and roads. Travelling a long distance wont go very well with your employees and you can expect higher attrition rates.
There are also some great number of situations and reasons why a business might need to change place or find a new location. A firm wants to expand business may need a new office location for business expansion or to establish another branch in different location.
A business corporation facing uncompetitive expenditures in business may go for a cheaper location.
Some of the features that must take into account while deciding a business location or while moving to a new business location are:
1.)Communication is decisive factor for every business company. Bad infrastructure availability can affect the business infrastructure in different way. A firm engaged in importing or exporting goods desires an area close from good road links and ports. Choose your business location by considering distance of locations from ports and major population centers.
2.)A business location with better support of money and investment is an ideal business location for them, if help with costs is a key consideration while deciding a suitable location.
3.)A highly unemployment area can also have a bad effect on business efficiency and productivity.
4.)If the area is adapted to the needs of your business area then everything should become easier to set up and run a business.
5.)Businesses often find a huge advantage by choosing a business location near to universities and colleges. This could be the major feature for a successful business.
6.)It is not enough to choose business locations for its current benefits. A good indicator of a locations strategy is the expansion that are being constructed or planned in the area.
7.) Quality of life is a wide and subjective matter to explain. The quality of life in their area can be judge in terms of housing, learning, culture, recreational activities, alternative energy and environmentally-friendly facilities. It can make easy for you to get a more attentive and better staff.
These are some useful points to note down and apply it to case studies you have. These points can surely help you to locate a good business location. This process will allow any business owner to define what is important to consider before selecting a business location.
Energy efficient replacement windows are an excellent way to give your home a green perspective. Inefficient windows can leave your home overheated in the summertime, and they will be cold and drafty in the winter. Energy efficient windows do more than help you regulate the temperature in your home; modern technology and designs also improve the decor and architecture of your home.
Cost, value, and green window replacement
There is so much written about “green” technology that it can be confusing for homeowners to decipher all of the “green” remodeling information that is available. Regardless of energy efficiency, the first question most homeowners want answered is how much the new replacement windows are going to cost.
With so many options for styles, colors, types of windows and levels of energy efficiency, the task of choosing the best windows may seem confusing. It is important to remember that even the most basic models of energy efficient replacement windows are tremendously effective, so let your budget be your primary consideration and work from there.
Energy savings of replacement windows
Energy savings are undoubtedly substantial with energy efficient replacement windows. Replacing old, inefficient windows will increase energy efficiency in your home by thirty percent or more. This means that the windows will begin to repay for the investment from the first month that they are installed.
In addition, the new windows will add value to the home in the event that you should decide to sell it in the future. Keep in mind that regardless of the cost of the window, installation costs remain relatively the same. The benefits of energy efficient windows cannot be measured only by their cost. Installation of energy efficient windows makes your home healthier and safer.
Window panes are a significant investment that should also be considered. Upgrading from a single pane to a double pane window will lower your annual heating cost by as much as 15 percent. This means that a homeowner can realize a savings of close to $2,000 during the lifespan of the window. Accordingly, triple panes and gas-filled windows will yield even greater overall efficiency.
Energy efficient window replacements in Greensboro, NC
The main reason that energy efficient replacement windows are so popular is because they are proven to increase the beauty and the comfort of your home. Let roofing companies replace your old, dilapidated windows with quality vinyl replacement windows.
These windows feature computer designed frames that are highly insulating and much stronger. They have been installing custom windows in Greensboro, NC, and the surrounding areas for decades. They offer a full line of energy efficient replacement windows that will save you money each month.
UK residents have many choices when it comes to energy suppliers, but that doesnt mean that switching is always easy. Even when a new deal crops up that is better than another, a customer has to worry about exit fees. These can include fees also called cancellation and termination fees. These fees are assessed whenever a buyer tries to opt out of a previous energy contract before the actual period of service is over. They can range from as little as 5 to up to 50 per fuel type. Due to the simplification of the UK tariff structure, you may find yourself suddenly signed up to a more expensive tariff once your old tariff is no longer available. This automatic enrolment can also oblige you to pay an exit fee if you want to switch after the period for enrolment is over. Its the wise consumer that keeps an eye out for fees and asks about them before switching, even when the switch was not of their own doing.
Fixed rate plans
Fixed rate agreements usually carry early termination fees, and they tend to be more expensive than other plans. This can make it difficult to switch from one type of plan to another, as the fee will offset any savings in cost. Even if you have a change of heart in the middle of the winter season, you might find youre stuck with your deal, unless the utility will allow you to switch without a fee. If you have a fixed tariff, you will need to see what types of fees are associated with terminating the account before you actually decide to make that decision. You may find that you can still switch, even if it costs you, or that the company will waive the fee as long as you remain with them and not some other utility. The costs to terminate a fixed rate plan also depend on how far along you are in it.
Sometimes, you get lucky
If your energy supplier has to change the tariff rate, they must give you 30 days to decide whether you want to keep the tariff or not. If you choose not to keep it during this time, no termination fees apply. The reason for this is that the company has changed the terms of the contract making the previous contract null and void. Thus, the termination fees associated with the contract also do not apply. However, this is a special case and isnt bound to happen much. It might happen with a fixed rate if the supplier thinks theyre going to lose money by selling you their gas at a lesser price than the market can withstand. However, most fixed tariffs have excess leeway built into the price structure, so this might not ever happen to any of your tariffs. Instead, you might have to wait for the contract to be officially over.
Another option for switching
If you simply wait for the contract period to be over, you will also be given 30 days to make a switch without termination fees. Of course, by that time the heating season will be over and you probably wont know what next winter will be like either. The time period is limited and if you miss notifying your supplier of how you want to switch, you can lose the opportunity to do so without incurring an exit fee. Keep an eye on your contract terms to determine when you can switch without penalty.
When your previous tariff is dropped
You will also get the opportunity to switch when your previous tariff is dropped and becomes unavailable. Companies that are simplifying their fee structures will send out a letter advising you that you need to change your tariff or they will do it for you. Some will put you on their standard plan and others will pick a more expensive plan. Whatever it happens to be, it will also come with termination fees. If you want to be in control of switching, you have got to abide by the time limit set for making those choices. Otherwise, once the other tariff is in place (whether you agreed to it or not), you wont be able to make another switch without triggering exit fees.
While many in Washington still warn about the dangers of carbon emissions and climate change, the reality and perhaps the one thing that experts on both sides agree on, is that Americans are paying less attention to global warming than they have in the past. To end this uncertainty, the Senate after months of behind the scenes maneuvering will begin the debate on the critically important legislation which could help American consumers, businesses and the federal government to save millions of dollars each year by using less energy, and using less energy will be a step forward in the fight against climate change in the U.S.
The new energy efficiency legislation introduced by Senators Shaheen and Portman could come up before the U.S. Senate for approval. The Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act, also known as Shaheen-Portman Bill will help to reduce the energy bill of U.S., improve its economic competitiveness, create new American jobs and enhance U.S. energy security. The bill has been endorsed by more than 200 businesses, trade associations and advocacy groups.
What is the Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act?
The Shaheen-Portman Energy Efficiency Bill passed the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee by a 19-3 vote, it includes provisions that will directly improve energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and federal agencies, the provisions in the bill include strengthening energy efficiency requirements in building energy codes, incentivizing energy efficiency using rebates and for certain equipment, encouraging energy efficiency supply chains through a new supply star program.
The American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) found implementation of the bill would save about 9.5 quadrillion btus (british thermal units) between 2014 and 2030, or nearly one tenth of the annual energy use in the U.S. As the second largest consumer of energy in the world and the worlds biggest economy it is critically important for the United States to improve energy efficiency, the bill has received bipartisan support with seven Republicans and twelve Democrats in favor of the bill. It contains a variety of policies and programs to reduce residential, commercial and industrial energy use and focusing on sectors and areas with energy savings potential such as the residential, commercial and industrial sectors, the bill also restricts inefficient energy practices that will cost the U.S. economy billions of dollars and millions of jobs every year. One of the components of the bill also requires the Federal Government- which is the largest user of energy adopt energy saving techniques and best practices to operate efficiently.
Commenting on the bill Senator Portman said Washington can seem pretty divided these days, but there are some things on which we all can agree. This bill is one of them it is good for the economy and good for the environment. By making it easier for employers to use energy efficient tools, we are helping them to reduce their costs, enabling them to put those savings towards expanding their companies and hiring new workers.
The bill has received positive feedback and widespread support, the only constraint halting the success of the bill are the amendments lawmakers are trying to attach to it. The successful passing of this bill will not only help in mitigating climate change in the U.S. and reduce carbon emissions but also be a trendsetter for other countries to follow suit.
You would think that energy efficiency is relatively simple: perform an energy audit, install the retrofits and then reap the energy savings. Unfortunately, it doesn”t always work that way. We performed an energy assessment of several stores of a major retail chain in the San Francisco Bay Area and identified a handful of low-cost retro-commissioning measures that had very promising potential. We quantified the expected savings and costs and returned after the project was installed. We then measured the savings using various methods and found either minimal or negative savings. The problem we discovered was that on nearly every measure, the contractors had repaired the hardware, but through various means had ensured that energy savings would not occur. This paper provides an account of the failed project at one store and the steps we took to remedy it. Specifically, this paper stresses the importance of Measurement and Verification and Commissioning of the retrofits.
DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING
The store, located in San Francisco, belongs to a well-known national retailer, whose name we will not divulge. The store is an aggregate of 3 buildings which have been joined together to comprise almost 1,000,000 square feet, of which over half is selling floor. Stock rooms and offices comprise the remainder of the space. The different buildings range between 8 and 11 stories tall.
The three buildings comprising the store were built at different times from the 1920s to the 1980s. Originally the buildings had different air handling, chilled water and hot water systems. Over the years, through energy conservation and facility improvement measures, the chilled water systems have been merged into one system.
There were no operating boilers in the store. Steam is provided to the store by an external vendor. Hot water is supplied to multi-zone air handling units and perimeter reheats in some areas of the store via heat exchangers.
There is one common cooling plant which houses two 500 ton centrifugal chillers (2004) which run all year. Chilled water is supplied to the Air Handling Units (AHUs) via primary/secondary chilled water loops. During the hottest months, both chillers run at around 90% full load””this happens about 5 days/yr. During the cooler months, one chiller runs at about 40% full load. If you have been to San Francisco you probably know that even in summer a typical day only reaches about 60 degrees . A properly designed and operating building in San Francisco should not need mechanical cooling most of the year, instead relying upon outside air to meet its cooling needs. This was obviously not the case .
A utility bill analysis identified an out of control building. Figure 1 presents twelve months of average usage per day versus average outdoor temperature. Each point represents a billing period. The superimposed red line represents the statistically insignificant trend. The lack of clear trend indicates that the building is either haphazardly controlled or that energy use varies due to some other variable. We believe mostly the former. During warmer periods (which are not that warm) the store uses more energy, indicating a variable cooling load based upon weather conditions. (An ideal system that uses outside air whenever possible should show a horizontal trend in this 48 to 66 degree temperature range.)
There are over fifty AHUs: a mixture of single zone, multi-zone, and variable air volume units. Each of the three sections contains different types of AHUs.
Electricity Costs for the store were over $2.5M per year. With the economic collapse in the fall of 2008, smart retailers were looking to cut costs wherever possible. One line item that could be cut was utilities. Saving 10% or more could add at least $250,000 to the bottom line.
BACKGROUND OF THE UTILITY PROGRAM
There may be several reasons why California uses less than 50% per capita of the energy than the rest of the country, but one major reason is the aggressive effort of the California Public Utilities Commission to cut energy usage. Commercial ratepayers of the investor owned utilities pay a fee in their utility bills that funds energy efficiency programs. These funds are then channeled to the investor owned utilities to promote energy efficiency. These utilities have over one hundred targeted programs aimed at different vertical markets such as: wineries, retail, hospitals, supermarkets, etc. Often these programs will include free energy audits or retro-commissioning services in conjunction with generous incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In some cases, the utilities will pay for up to 100% of the cost for implementing the measures. The utilities administer some programs directly and outsource others. The outsourced programs are designed and administered by third party energy consultants.
Quantum Energy Services & Technologies, Inc. (QuEST), an energy consulting firm headquartered in Berkeley, administers a retail program for PG&E which covers the San Francisco Bay Area. This program offers retailers free retro-commissioning studies along with incentives to implement energy conservation measures found. The utilities give incentives to the building owners based upon the amount of energy saved. But in order for energy savings to be recognized by PG&E, these savings need to be measured and verified and then the savings calculations must pass a review by third party reviewers. Nobody gets paid if the work does not pass the third party review. The third party review process is necessary to prevent false claims of savings, or gaming of the system. The reviewers can be tough and require all assumptions to be documented and based upon published standards or guidelines. The drawback of third party review is that some measures are dropped as the Measurement and Verification (M&V) costs would be prohibitively expensive.
QuEST retained our company as a subcontractor to help out with the retail program. Our company performed Retro-Commissioning (RCx) services on 8 stores belonging to this unnamed retailer, and this paper is about one of the stores. However, the same story occurred at most of the stores. It wasn”t one failure, but many.
A NOTE ON THE LEVEL OF RCx RIGOR
RCx is different from energy auditing in that RCx typically involves a more detailed study of the building”s control systems and HVAC systems than energy audits. In addition, RCx typically focuses on repairing, recalibrating and reprogramming, rather than procuring new equipment. Simple paybacks for RCx projects typically are under 2 years. Examples of RCx measures are: repairing inoperable equipment, programming controls, demand control ventilation, and calibrating temperature sensors. Examples of energy audit measures (which are not considered RCx measures) are: installing energy efficient chillers, boilers or package units, converting single zone HVAC systems to variable air volume systems, and installing EMS systems. Energy audit measures often are more expensive and may have longer paybacks. On the other hand, true RCx studies are much more detailed, and thus much more expensive to conduct than energy audits. RCx studies usually involve data logging, functional testing of controls, operator training and post implementation commissioning which repeats much of the data logging and functional testing that was previously done. RCx is criticized by some as too heavy on the analysis, as it can require hundreds of hours of work just to perform the study, whereas energy audits consume much less labor.
In order to make the most efficient use of ratepayer dollars, in QuEST”s RCx program the amount of engineering time was scaled down to minimize the time spent on work that does not directly lead to energy savings. Rather than write commissioning plans, and 100-page Master List of Findings reports, the interim deliverable is instead an Excel workbook that describes the measure, states all assumptions and measured values, and calculates the savings. Equipment is data-logged or trended before and after the implementation of the measures. Calculations are made in Excel so they can be verified by third party reviewers. Written reports come later, but are less extensive than typical RCx reports.
Two engineers spent 3 days onsite examining the store”s mechanical systems, uncovering problems, and identifying RCx Measures. Our work to this point was nearly identical to an energy audit.
Once the RCx Measures were identified, the list of RCx Measures was given to the customer who then decided which of them should be pursued. The list also was approved by the third party reviewer.
We found the store could save about $300,000 in both RCx and Retrofit Measures, which, with incentives offered a simple payback of less than six months. That is 12% of their energy spend. The following measure types were identified and approved by all parties:
1.Install Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) on Multi-Zone Air Handling Units (AHUs).
2.Installation of VSDs on secondary chilled water loops.
1.Repair economizer control on some air handlers. Many outside air dampers were rusted in place. A two by six was used to prop one open.
2.Repair a small number of faulty VSDs, some of which were in bypass running at 100% fan speed.
3.Reconnect static pressure lines. Some VSDs were running at full speed because the lines running to the static pressure sensors in the ducting had been previously destroyed by contractors.
4.Repair/Replace stuck chilled water valves. These valves were cooling whether the AHUs called for cooling or not. As a result, sales floor temperatures ranged from 62 degrees to 70 degrees.
5.Connect some AHUs to the Energy Management System. These AHUs were running wild and had no control at all.
Once the measures were selected by the customer, QuEST engineers placed data loggers to measure pre-implementation temperatures and power. Temperatures measured included Outside Air Temperature (OAT), Return Air Temperature (RAT), Mixed Air Temperature (MAT) and Supply Air Temperature (SAT). Fan Motor kW were also logged for those units on VSDs. Spot measurements were taken of Fan Motor kW for AHUs that were not on VSDs.
Energy savings were estimated using bin data simulations. Like-type AHUs were combined. Special care was taken in calculating energy savings to ensure that savings were not double-counted. Each energy conservation measure was modeled assuming the prior measures were already implemented. We integrated the interval data that we collected into the bin data simulations. To do this, we created regressions of our variables (RAT, MAT, SAT, kW) versus OAT. These regressions were used to project RATs, MATs, SATs and kW for other outdoor air temperatures that were not included in our sample.
Once we had estimated savings using our bin simulation models and provided measure costs, the customer decided which measures to implement. They then hired contractors to implement the measures. VSDs were installed and repaired, economizer dampers repaired, AHUs connected to the EMS system, etc.
M&V PROVES NO SAVINGS
Once the implementation was completed, QuEST engineers returned to the site and again data logged the same temperatures and power as before. The resulting data, RATs, MATs, SATs and kWs, was again regressed against OAT. Using the regression, RATs, MATs, SATs, and kW values were again extrapolated and placed into the bin simulations.
The resulting calculations demonstrated the unthinkable. Not only were the energy conservation measures we had recommended not saving energy, the affected systems at the store were using more energy than before! Actually, this could be seen from just looking at the interval data. It was obvious that the economizers and variable speed drives were not working as intended. The “repaired” economizers were letting in less outside air than before, and the variable speed drives were still commanding the fans to run at a constant load, but at a higher speed than before.
QuEST alerted the customer that their investments were not saving energy. Facility personnel then investigated the problems, found them, and corrected them.
Even though the contractors had made the economizers operational (as opposed to frozen), the damper actuators were not calibrated correctly. When dampers needed to be fully open, they were not. When dampers needed to be at minimum position, they were not. The variable speed drives were also installed incorrectly. Some wiring and controls issues were resolved and the units started operating as expected. Once these issues were resolved, M&V was performed again. We repeated the data-logging and placed this information into our bin simulations, and again projected the annual savings.
There are many ways energy efficiency projects can go wrong.
“Untrained staff who compromise all the energy conservation measures undertaken
Faulty recommendations may arise from a lack of understanding of how systems operate or should operate. Years of experience, and a good understanding of physics and control theory is necessary to make sound recommendations.
Poor implementation has many causes, but often can be traced to the mindset that having the right equipment will make the difference. But as the lessons learned here illustrate, installing the right hardware is only half the solution. It needs to be integrated into the system and operate according to a logical and beneficial sequence of operations.
The last item is especially troublesome because it is so common. Even if the right hardware is installed and controls optimized, small changes to the sequence of operations made to “fix” local problems may have large consequences on overall system performance over time. Changing supply air temperatures at the air handler to resolve hot or cold complaints may upset the balance of the system and cause problems elsewhere. Professors at Texas A&M University have pointed out that in the absence of continuous monitoring, a building”s performance will fall to the level of the least-trained operator within two years.
HOW TO AVOID FAILED ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS
There are a couple of ways to avoid projects that fail to produce savings. After equipment is installed, it needs to be commissioned by a third party, not the contractor who implemented the ECMs. Commissioning can be expensive, but it is worth it. However, just because the equipment has been deemed operational by the commissioning agent, that doesn”t mean it is saving what was expected. Commissioning will tell you if the equipment is working as it should. To determine if you are actually saving what was expected, M&V needs to be done on the building. Although M&V can appear as a waste of money to some, it caught this disaster before it was too late.
Unfortunately, building owners often value engineer commissioning and M&V out of their projects and leave themselves open to big disappointments in their energy efficiency projects. M&V is like insurance””sure, it costs money up front, but the reassurance of knowing the project is done correctly should be worth far more than the initial outlay. What other product would you purchase without verifying that you actually received what you paid for? Why should energy efficiency be any different?
Unfortunately, energy efficiency isn”t as simple as we would wish. Energy consultants may deliver quality energy audits and RCx studies, but merely implementing sound energy efficiency recommendations does not guarantee energy savings. The weak link is often in the commissioning of the measures to ensure they are doing what they are intended to do.
To avoid underperforming on your energy efficiency measures, we suggest the following three strategies:
1. Commission what you implement with third-party commissioning experts. Commissioning agents are not interested in selling hardware. They are interested in making systems operate at peak performance. They understand physics and control theory and can identify and repair problems quickly.
2. Track your energy savings using M&V. Even using something as simple as utility bill tracking software can provide some insight into building performance. An increase in monthly energy usage when a decrease was expected would have triggered an investigation into the cause. Verifying performance at the system level (as we did), while more difficult and expensive, would have isolated the problem much more quickly and accurately.
3. Provide proper training so that your facility staff doesn”t override or bypass your energy efficiency projects. Although we barely treated this topic in this paper, this is probably the single most effective step you can take. Your staff is the brains behind building operation, despite what EMS vendors may say. Having the smartest control system will do no good if it is operated by the dumbest operators.